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Malolactic Fermentation bubbles in Viognier Wine 2010



Here we have a gallon of Viognier Wine just after the primary fermentation now undergoing MLF or Malolactic Fermentation. This MLF process converts malic acid to lactic acid + CO2. People often wonder what the process looks like and how it compares to the primary fermentation. Here you can see very small bubbles . . . → Read More: Malolactic Fermentation bubbles in Viognier Wine 2010

Punching down the Cap (Pigeage) 2010 Shiraz

What is a cap?

The cap is the layer of grape skins that are pushed up during fermentation where the must contains whole or crushed grapes. When the fermentation process begins, yeast eats away sugar, and spits out alcohol, heat, and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). This CO2 when it is released floats to the . . . → Read More: Punching down the Cap (Pigeage) 2010 Shiraz